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Find the odd one out reflection neutralization refraction dispersion

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A saturation theory for toroidal ITG turbulence based on zonal-flow-catalyzed transfer to stable modes successfully recovers scalings of the heat flux with the zonal flow damping rate and plasma beta observed in gyrokinetic simulations. Here the theory is extended to include the physics of the instability threshold in temperature gradient by retaining the appropriate magnetic drift effects in the fluid model. The theory has a quasilinear factor with a flux threshold at the linear value. However, a factor proportional to the inverse triplet correlation time makes the flux very small above this threshold when nonlinear energy transfer is nearly resonant.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: ABC Zoom - Refraction: why glass prisms bend and separate light

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SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Index of Refraction

US2922724A - Method of producing iridescence - Google Patents

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This invention relates generally to electrothermal printing, and more particularly to an improved printing ink to mark substrates such as paper, as well as apparatus and methods for use therewith. Traditional methods of printing utilize various types of long-run print forms such as gravure cylinders, offset plates or flexographic belts which carry a representation of the desired image the so-called "signature" suitably recorded thereon.

The print form is matched with a particular type of ink having physical characteristics compatible with those of the print form, thereby facilitating cycles of proper ink uptake and ink release. For example, in gravure printing, the gravure cylinder contains an imagewise pattern of depressions, so-called "cells", that accept ink from an ink-feed roller and subsequently deposit part of the ink under immense mechanical pressure onto a printing substrate such as paper. This process generally requires low-viscosity inks having high solvent contents in order to promote the ready release of the ink from the gravure cells, even though large residual volumes of the ink will remain in the cells after these are pressed onto the print paper.

Lithographic offset printing, another much-used process, generally involves aluminum plates having imagewise signatures recorded thereon, the signatures residing in rasterized ink-accepting and ink-repellent areas comprising millions of print dots.

A lithographic offset plate is usually "imaged" by means of ultraviolet contact photography with a sheet of silver film; this process permits subsequent etching of the exposed plate raster-dot areas from an initial ink-accepting state into a water-accepting state, while leaving the unexposed dot areas in their original ink-accepting state.

Lithographic inks are hydrophobic, and exhibit high, paste-like viscosities and contain relatively small amounts of solvent. The primary disadvantages of these traditional printing methods stem from the tediousness and time-consuming lengthiness of recording the precise signature needed on the print member, and the inability to alter the imaged print member.

Indeed, the print member is always discarded after its use. Due to the unalterable nature of the signature, the print form can only function repetitively; that is, it must print thousands of the same image signature in succession for later collation, cutting, and binding. Thus, the instantaneous variability of printed signatures, such as ascending page numbers, is impossible with traditional print forms, making short runs such as , prints quite uneconomical; this is particularly so when the long make-ready time for the press is considered.

Furthermore, because traditional print methods require significant contact pressures between print form and printing substrate, the presses must be sturdy, precise and, consequently, very heavy and costly. In order to avoid at least some of these difficulties, practitioners have developed alternative printing processes generally called "marking" methods.

Ink-jet equipment, for example, completely eliminates the need for any print form, producing color images by ballistically jetting a serial sequence of ink droplets from a distance onto specially prepared paper see, e.

The ink, which is generally volatile and low in viscosity, is usually furnished in liquid form, but sometimes it is provided in a solid form. The ink block is heated to fill a chamber from which a liquid droplet is subsequently ejected through a nozzle by means of a piezoelectric actuator; the droplet travels onto the paper where it impacts, loses its remaining heat and affixes. This process is relatively slow in terms of print speed, requires specially constructed paper substrates, is severly limited in terms of resolution, and lacks dot-by-dot gray-scale tonal capability.

Furthermore, the resulting image typically remains entirely on top of the paper substrate in relief, and is thus susceptible to scratching and other physical damage unless solvent-based inks are used; these penetrate the paper to such a depth that the ink appears at the back of the paper.

Another alternative to traditional print-form-based printing is the thermal electrostatic method see, e. In this process, a discharge source deposits imagewise electrostatic charges onto a photoconductive plate or drum. The plate or drum is then brought into contact with a solid wax block, which consists of a carrier material in which electrostatic toner particles are dispersed.

Heat or a solvent is applied to the block at the line of contact with the printing substrate, bringing the carrier into a molten state within which the charged particles can move freely. As the block is drawn along the substrate, it wets the entire surface with the wax; however, when the block reaches latent electrostatically charged image areas, the toner particles are slowly drawn onto the substrate by electrophoresis.

Once again, the need for a permanent print form is eliminated, in this case because of the ease with which a latent image pattern can be deposited onto an image cylinder or on the substrate itself. If the electrical resistivity of the toner is sufficiently high and the substrate carrier possesses good charge-retention characteristics, a single charge deposition can be re-used to produce a number of printed images; toners having low resistivity tend to dissipate the charged image areas by conduction.

The solid toners used in the above process consist of a carrier, such as wax, in which toner particles are dispersed.

Thus, the carrier merely serves as a reservoir from which toner particles are continuously extracted during use, causing ultimate depletion of the reservoir. Because of the slowness of the electrophoretic process, the steady and non-uniform depletion of the reservoir, and the overall wax deposit on the entire image sheet, this process is considered impractical and therefore not used in commercial products.

The present invention overcomes the limitations of both the traditional printing processes and the more exotic marking methods by providing a printing system wherein the print form can be varied continuously and can be reused; wherein the densities of the individual ink dots can be varied and deposited on a variable image member e.

The present advance is made possible by combining several correlated novel printing features including the particular ink described herein, the image-member construction, the signature-recording method and means, the ink-deposition subsystem, and the method of ink release to the primary substrate.

Obviously, the ink and its functional characteristics are central to this printing process. Thus, in accordance with the present invention, the printing ink initially takes the form of a meltable, solid block of carrier material that contains myriad, tiny, preferably monodispersed, colored pigment particles distributed evenly in the solid carrier material. These particles exhibit an innate electrical potential in relation to the-carrier material so as to become responsive to and be attracted by external electrostatic fields.

The carrier medium consists of a polymer containing electrostatically polarizable subagents which are capable of interacting with such fields, thus forming a field-responsive matrix. The index of refraction of the particles closely matches that of the carrier, so that when an image is printed with this ink it exhibits maximum color transparency and saturation in a selected color band after the ink resolidifies. Because of the responsive nature of the ink matrix, a fixed, specific mass ratio between the colored particles and the carrier material is always maintained regardless of whether the ink is in solid, liquid or resolidified-droplet phase.

In this way, consistent optical density properties can be achieved upon deposition and later solidification of the released ink on the printing substrate, and the problem of uneven toner-particle depletion is eliminated. The second important feature of the invention is the degree of transparency and purity of color this ink produces upon release in a liquid state from an image member e. Because of the matched, identical indices of refraction of both the particles and the carrier material as well as the minute size of the particles, the ink attains near-perfect transmissivity for all light frequencies not absorbed by the chemistry of the particles.

The purity and lack of grayness noise of the transmitted color derives also from the wave propagation and controlled light-scatter between multiple layers of uniformly dispersed particles.

Because all particles are identical in shape preferably spherical , size approximately 0. The third important feature of the invention involves the complete transfer of the deposited ink from the image cylinder surface to the printing substrate. This is facilitated by utilizing an image cylinder whose surface is ultra-smooth and basically phobic to the molten polymer ink.

The result is rapid solidification of the ink while it fuses itself onto the substrate like hardening glue. With a relatively firm bond established with the substrate, the ink droplets, still liquid at the point of contact with the heated image cylinder, are pulled completely from from the cylinder surface as the ink adhesion force from the substrate overpowers the adhesion force from the cylinder; because of the strong internal cohesion in the ink droplets, this transfer is complete, leaving no residue of ink or even electrostatic charge on the cylinder.

The printing ink of the present invention is preferably supplied as a solid block of thermoplastic carrier material containing therein the colored-particles in even distribution.

When heated, the viscosity of the carrier material preferably drops sharply to a low-viscosity condition e. Because of the polarizable nature of the carrier and the charge on the particles, the liquefied ink responds to externally applied electrostatic fields, and thereby enables the image cylinder to take a "bite" out of the molten ink supply through the action of the forces projecting from the print-dot-sized electrostatic field domains into the molten, liquid ink supply, which overpowers the internal cohesion forces of the ink.

The image member used in conjunction with the ink of the present invention is preferably an image cylinder that can be heated to a precise temperature and which is capable of maintaining that temperature. The cylinder carries imagewise electrostatic field areas print dots which collectively form a latent image signature. As the ink-supply and image cylinders rotate in intimate surface contact with one another, the charged areas on the image cylinder attract a field-strength-proportionate amount of dielectric ink whose volume i.

The ink particles remain bound to the liquid carrier by a matrix of interacting electrostatic forces, and they transfer to the image cylinder with a fixed ratio of particles to carrier material in each "bite. However, while the field strength controls the thickness of ink on the deposited dots, their areas of coverage are controlled only by the geometry of the charged dot areas on the image cylinder.

Consequently, a variation of the field intensities on the image cylinder facilitates reproduction of a full gray scale using the ink of the present invention comparable to that attained with photographic film.

The so-called contact angle of a hot, liquid ink drop at the boundary where it touches the hot cylinder surface must accommodate the choice of polymer carrier material and the ionic potential of said surface material. In order to attain the desired contact angle and assure non-wettability of the image cylinder, the phobicity to ink of the cylinder surface can be assisted and controlled by implanting ions into said surface material. Cooling of the ink droplets also increases their internal cohesion, resulting in the departure of each droplet in its entirety from the image cylinder as forces of adhesion to the printing substrate, combine with internal cohesion forces to overpower the forces of adhesion to the image cylinder.

The inks of the present invention can be remelted, at least in part, although already affixed to the printing substrate to allow the bonding of successive color ink deposits on top of each other for total color adjustment. This property allows printing of a wide variety of color hues, which are achieved by hot superimposition of multiple, geometrically congruent dots of different subtractive, highly transparent colors; the hue ultimately obtained is determined by the chosen colors and the densities of each of the overprinted dots.

The ability to remelt the inks further facilitates their ultimate removal from the printing substrate de-inking. Such removal can be accomplished by running a hot roller over the printed material while applying a strong electrostatic field in the reverse direction and with said roller having a strongly oleophilic surface. The foregoing discussion will be understood more readily from the following detailed description of the invention, when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:.

The printing inks of the present invention generally comprise two main components, namely, the clear carrier material and the colored pigment particles. For reasons to be discussed below, the melting point of the carrier material is well below that of the particles. The advantageous characteristics of the ink of this invention derive from a number of features not offered by any other ink. These features include the formation of stable, non-agglomerating, uniform dispersions of the colored particles within the solid carrier matrix; a precise, repeatable and selectable color purity and brightness for the ink, and exceptionally high transmissivity when the ink is deposited; the ability to impart to each particle a precise, permanent electrical charge that can respond to an externally imposed electrostatic field interactively, together with other particles, while embedded in a dipolar, similarly responsive carrier material to form a matrix capable of responding collectively to an external electrostatic field; and a carrier material having viscoelastic, thermally controlled properties suitable for deposition on a print cylinder and release therefrom to a substrate.

To obtain an ink having the above-mentioned characteristics and functional properties which will operate satisfactorily in the electrothermal print method described herein or in other marking methods that rely on or benefit from a the interplay of forces produced by field neutralization, b electrostatic adhesion for maintaining the deposition of a "bite" of ink, c differential adhesion at the transfer-release point, and d internal cohesion of the ink to achieve total ink release, the following materials are employed:.

Specifically, as shown in FIG. In its liquid state and while in contact with a hot i. The material also must be a good insulator e.

With these characteristics, the carrier forms a coherent matrix with interspersed color particles that can be removed from a molten reservoir as a "bite" by a passing electrostatic-field site, with the bite being confined substantially to the boundaries of that site, and the size of the bite being determined by the strength of the field at the site.

A basic carrier material, whose derivatives are described further in application Serial No. The in situ behavior of the particles of the present invention, as compared with conventional pigment particles, is illustrated in FIGS. The conventional particles shown in FIG. This tendency interferes with the ability to create uniform dispersions of such particles within a carrier, resulting in inks that do not appear particularly bright, and whose colors do not appear pure.

Furthermore, because of the random nature of particle agglomeration, it is difficult to create inks having uniform color hues that may be obtained repeatably. By contrast, the particles of the present invention shown in FIG. Furthermore, quantities of such particles can be dispersed uniformly in a carrier to conform to the Mie light-scattering theory, thereby facilitating reproduction of very pure colors on a repeatable basis. A number of inorganic powders have been found to meet these criteria.

We have had particular success with metal oxides, sulfides and phosphates; yttrium and compounds thereof; and silica and silica-like compounds. These materials tend to be obtainable as microspheres having a relatively narrow size distribution; for purposes of the present invention, average diameters of about 0. Such particles can be produced either by precipitation from homogeneous solutions, or by reactions with aerosols see, e. For example, uniform spherical colloidal aluminum oxide see, e.

Spherical colloidal cadmium sulfide see, e. The aerosol procedure involves interaction between droplets of one reactant such as a metal alkoxide with the vapor of a co-reactant such as water to yield spherical particles of predetermined composition. It is also possible to control particle size by adjusting the flow rate, process temperature and process time.

For example, titanium dioxide see, e. After isolation, the particles are surface treated to assure ionic bonding from the particle core to the cationic color dye adsorbed on the particle surface.

The dye can be formulated to produce visible colors, or to absorb particular frequencies of electromagnetic radiation e. Furthermore, more than one dye can be applied to each particle, thereby facilitating preparation of inks having desired color hues without the traditional need to mix varying quantities of single-hue particles.

A charge is then placed on the particles by the addition of trace elements of any of a variety of charge-control agents and according to any of the techniques known to practitioners in the art, and the particles are then dried and retrieved as a particulate powder. The powder is mixed in a selected volumetric ratio with a suitable carrier material, which can be introduced into the plastic powder of the carrier matrix and subsequently melted into the carrier as a bulk volume, or ultrasonically dispersed in the carrier monomer prior to polymerization.

Together, they form the ink of the present invention. Refer now to FIG. Marking of a printing substrate 10 which can be, e. First, an imagewise dot pattern consisting of electronic or preferably ionic charges having varying intensities is recorded onto the dielectric surface 16 of image cylinder 18 or to a plate or other shaped member by an electronic writing head 19a.

The diameter of cylinder 18 may be on the order of four inches, and its surface 16 may be a thin e. Underlying surface 16 is a conductive layer

Plasma Physics

The questions posted on the site are solely user generated, Doubtnut has no ownership or control over the nature and content of those questions. Doubtnut is not responsible for any discrepancies concerning the duplicity of content over those questions. Study Materials. Crash Course. Reflection , Neutralization , Refraction , Dispersion.

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The questions posted on the site are solely user generated, Doubtnut has no ownership or control over the nature and content of those questions. Doubtnut is not responsible for any discrepancies concerning the duplicity of content over those questions. Study Materials. Crash Course. Question : Find odd one out.

Odd one out - dispersion, refraction ,spectrum, transformation​

A great deal of evidence suggests that light is a wave and under a wide range of circumstances, light travels in a straight line. For example, sunlight casts sharp shadows. Another example is refraction where light passes from one transparent medium into another figure 1. Such observations, has led to the ray model of light. A ray is an idealization that represents an extremely narrow beam of light. According to the ray model, we see an object because light reaches our eyes from each point on the object. Although the light leaves a point on the object in all directions, only a small bundle enters your eye. The ray model of light has been very successful in explaining many aspects of the behaviour of light such as reflection, refraction, dispersion, and the formation of images by mirrors and lenses. We can use a ray model to explain the straight line propagation of light.

Find three consecutive integers so that the sum of the first two is seventeen more than the

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Tracking Information — Science.

This invention relates generally to electrothermal printing, and more particularly to an improved printing ink to mark substrates such as paper, as well as apparatus and methods for use therewith. Traditional methods of printing utilize various types of long-run print forms such as gravure cylinders, offset plates or flexographic belts which carry a representation of the desired image the so-called "signature" suitably recorded thereon. The print form is matched with a particular type of ink having physical characteristics compatible with those of the print form, thereby facilitating cycles of proper ink uptake and ink release.

Odd man out. -. reflection, neutralisation, refraction, dispersion

Environmental Protection Agency, have been grouped into nine series. These nine broad cate- gories were established to facilitate further development and application of en- vironmental technology. Elimination of traditional grouping was consciously planned to foster technology transfer and a maximum interface in related fields. The nine series are: 1.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Dispersion - Geometric optics - Physics - Khan Academy

Greenstein, New York, William G. Young, Lake Mohegamand Charles A. Quinn, Peekskill, N. Application July 1, Serial No. More particularly, it relates to theproduc- 7 greatly limiting their application. One current method for producing iridescence consists of a series of polishing and dipping operations.

Find odd one out. Refraction dispersion, refraction, transformation and why

Теперь начнутся судебные процессы, последуют обвинения, общественное негодование. Он много лет служил своей стране верой и правдой и не может допустить такого конца. Я просто добивался своей цели, - мысленно повторил. Ты лжешь, - ответил ему внутренний голос. Да, это. Он - лжец. Он вел себя бесчестно по отношению ко многим людям, и Сьюзан Флетчер - одна из. Он очень о многом ей не сказал - о многих вещах, которых теперь стыдился.

Jan 28, - Click here to get an answer to your question ✍️ find out odd one out:Reflection, neutralization, refraction, dispersion. ​.

 Господи Иисусе! - вскричал Джабба.  - Откуда нам знать, что для Танкадо было главной разницей. - На самом деле, - прервал его Дэвид, - Танкадо имел в виду первичную, а не главную разницу. Его слова буквально обожгли Сьюзан. - Первичное! - воскликнула .

EP1047550A1 - Color shifting film - Google Patents

Она зажмурилась. - Попробую угадать. Безвкусное золотое кольцо с надписью по-латыни.

Новый порядок букв показался не более вразумительным, чем оригинал. P F Е Е S Е S N R Е Т М Р F Н А I R W E О О 1 G М Е Е N N R М А Е N Е Т S Н А S D С N S I 1 А А I Е Е R В R N К S В L Е L О D 1 - Ясно как в полночь в подвале, - простонал Джабба. - Мисс Флетчер, - потребовал Фонтейн, - объяснитесь. Все глаза обратились к .

 Нет.  - Стратмор хмуро посмотрел на нее и двинулся к двери.

И он задвигал крошечными металлическими контактами на кончиках пальцев, стремясь как можно быстрее сообщить американским заказчикам хорошую новость. Скоро, подумал он, совсем. Как хищник, идущий по следам жертвы, Халохот отступил в заднюю часть собора, а оттуда пошел на сближение - прямо по центральному проходу. Ему не было нужды выискивать Беккера в толпе, выходящей из церкви: жертва в ловушке, все сложилось на редкость удачно. Нужно только выбрать момент, чтобы сделать это тихо.

Пуля ударила в асфальт в нескольких метрах позади. Беккер оглянулся. Убийца целился, высунувшись из окна. Беккер вильнул в сторону, и тут же боковое зеркало превратилось в осколки. Он почувствовал, как этот удар передался на руль, и плотнее прижался к мотоциклу. Боже всевышний.

 На улице еще темно, - засмеялся. - А-ах, - сладко потянулась.  - Тем более приходи. Мы успеем выспаться перед поездкой на север.

Comments: 2
  1. Taurg

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  2. Dojas

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